The ADS or Asteroid Detection System is a station constructed by the player during Career Mode for the purpose of detecting and tracking asteroids. While completing missions, it is learned that the ADS along with the Space Telescope discovered the planets EMA, KAT, and JOR.
Mission PrescenceMission 17 begins the initial construction and uses a Resupply Module Dockable to place an ADS Core Module at the pre-selected location. Mission 29 expands the station by adding 2 Large Solar Panels, a Control Room and a Pod.Finally, Mission 34 further adds more station modules; to-wit, an Orion Crew Capsule with a Service Module, and an ISAAC Module.
As of Version 1.8.9, the ADS does not actually perform any task (it doesn't track asteroids), but Space Agency 2 may add a use for this.